The application of bench-top ion-trap atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry in the characterization of in vitro metabolites of glyburide is discussed. The metabolites formed in vitro by rat, dog, monkey and human liver microsomes were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS)n experiments. The utility of data dependent MS1-MS2-MS3 analyses, where the mass spectrometer makes "real-time" decisions about the experiment to be performed, are described using the characterization of two novel metabolites of glyburide as an example. The metabolite profiles from each species were similar. Six cyclohexyl hydroxylation products were detected, as well as two novel monooxygenation products formed via hydroxylation of the ethyl chain at the benzylic position, and alpha to the amide nitrogen. The ion-trap with electrospray ionization proved to be a sensitive and reliable HPLC detection system that provided important chemical structure information.
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